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Primary Prevention

 

Many congenital anomalies (CA) are potentially preventable and liable to be reduced by an integrated strategy of primary prevention. In the European context there is a need for a more comprehensive, science-based and consistent approach, especially in those countries in which primary prevention actions are still in their infancy or are relying on sporadic initiatives.

 

EUROCAT together with EUROPLAN have developed the first comprehensive set of recommendations on policies to be considered for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. These recommendations have to be considered a ‘first step’.

 

The next steps are to monitor their implementation in national plans or strategies for rare diseases, to evaluate the impact of the policy actions through continuing surveillance of CA by EUROCAT, and to regularly update the scientific evidence underpinning the recommendations.

 

EUROCAT (2013), EUROCAT Special Report: Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in European Countries, EUROCAT Central Registry, University of Ulster [Report]


EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies)/EUROPLAN Recommendations on policies to be considered for the primary prevention of congenital anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases (uploaded March 2013) [Recommendations]

 

 

Risk Factors Review


List of Risk Factor Publications

EUROCAT Special Report: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies

Related Systematic Reviews of Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EUROCAT (2004)  "EUROCAT Special Report: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central Registry, University of Ulster, ISBN 1-85923-187-X

 

Part I (Overview of Principles and Methods in Identifying the Causes of Congenital Anomalies) and Part II (Selected Environemntal Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies) [Report]

 

Part III (Environmental Pollution and Congenital Anomalies) [Report]

Updates:

 

     Obesity (October 2004) [Report]

 

     Testing for Teratogenicity: The Current Situation in Europe (March 2007) [Report]

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Related Systematic Reviews of Interest

 

Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Dadvand P, Grellier J, Martinez D and Vrijheid M (2013). Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. Environmental Health, 12, 6.
Link: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-12-6.pdf

Balsells M, Garcia-Patterson A, Gich I and Corcoy R (2012). Major congential malformations in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 28, 252-257.

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.1304/pdf


Flak AL, Tark JY, Tinker SC, Correa A and Cogswell ME (2012). Major, non-chromosomal, birth defects and maternal physical activity: A systemic review. Birth Defects Research (Part A)

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bdra.23017/pdf


Govarts E, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Schoeters G, Ballester F, Bloemen K, de Boer M, Chevier C, Eggesbo M, Guxens M, Kramer U, Legler J, Martinez D, Palkovicova L, Patelarou E, Ranft U, Rautio A, Petersen MS, Slama R, Stigum H, Toft G, Trnovec T, Vandentorren S, Weihe P, Kuperus NW, Wilhelm M, Wittsiepe J and Bonde JP (2012). Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): A meta-analsyis within 12 Europen birth cohorts. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120, (2), 162-170.

Link: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info:doi/10.1289/ehp.1103767


Hackshaw A et al (2011). Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Human Reproduction, 17, (5), 589-604.

Link: http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/5/589.full.pdf+html

 
Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Manzanares S, Dadvand P, Schembari A, Rankin J and Nieuwenhuijsen M (2011). Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Persepctives, 119 (5), 598-606.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3094408/pdf/ehp-119-598.pdf

Zwink N, Jenetzky E and Brenner H (2011). Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 6, 25

Link: http://www.ojrd.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-6-25.pdf


de-Regil LM, Fernandez-Gaxiola AC, Dowswell T and Pena-Rosas JP (2010). Folic acid supplementation before conception and in early pregnancy (up to 12 weeks) for the prevention of birth defects. Cochrane Summaries

Link: http://summaries.cochrane.org/CD007950/folic-acid-supplements-before-conception-and-in-early-pregnancy-up-to-12-weeks-for-the-prevention-of-birth-defects


Jentink J, Dolk H, Loane MA, Morris JK, Wellesley D, Garne E, de Jong-van den Berg L on behalf of the EUROCAT Antiepileptic Study Working Group (2010). Intrauterin exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations: Systemic review and case-control study. British Medical Journal, 341, C6581

Link: http://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c6581.pdf%2Bhtml


Martinez-Frias M-L (2010). Can our understanding on epigenetics assist with primary prevention of congenital defects? Journal of Medical Genetics, 47, (2), 73-80.

Link: http://jmg.bmj.com/content/47/2/73.full.pdf

 
Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Martinez D, Grellier J, Bennett J, Best N, Iszatt N, Vrijheid M and Toledano MB (2009). Chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water and congenital anomalies: Review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117, (10), 1486-1493

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790500/pdf/ehp-117-1486.pdf?tool=pmcentrez

 

Stothard KJ et al (2009). Maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of congenital anomalies. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 301, (6), 636-650.

Link: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/301/6/636.full.pdf+html

 

Cordier S (2008). Evidence for a role of paternal exposures in developmental toxicity. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 102, 176-181.

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00162.x/pdf

 
Jenkins KJ, Correa A, Feinstein JA, Botto L, Britts AE, Daniels SR, Elixson M, Warnes CA and Webb CL (2007). Non-inherited risk factors and congenital cardiovascular defects: Current knowledge. Circulation, 115, 2995-3014.

Link: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/115/23/2995

 
Browne ML (2006). Maternal exposure to caffeine and risk of congenital anomalies: A systemic review. Epidemiology, 17 (3), 324-331.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16570025

da Silva Dal Pizzol T, Knop FP and Mengue SS (2006). Prenatal exposure to misoprostol and congenital anomalies: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Reproductive Toxicology, 22, 666-671.

Link: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0890623806000931/1-s2.0-S0890623806000931-main.pdf?_tid=b352e94ae0cde82b7c70635f544c6111&acdnat=1340630433_3e0021dd6fc39dc634358bd8eb3219c5


Goh YI, Bollano E, Einarson TR and Koren G (2006). Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of congenital anomalies: A meta-analysis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can, 28, (8), 680-689.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17022907

Ngo AD, Taylor R, Roberts CL and Nguyen TV (2006). Association between agent orange and birth defects: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol.

Link: http://www.vn-agentorange.org/edmaterials/ije_paper.pdf


Hansen M, Bower C, Milne E, de Klerk N and Kurinczuk JJ (2005). Assisted reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects - a systematic review. Human Reproduction, 20, (2), 328-338.

Link: http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/328.full.pdf


Glinianaia SV, Rankin J, Bell R, Pless-Mulloli T and Howel D (2004). Particulate air pollution and fetal health: A systemic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiology, 15, (1), 36-45.

Link: http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/CRA/lbw/Glianianaia_2004.pdf


Dolk H and Vrijheid M (2003). The impact of environmental pollution on congenital anomalies. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 25-45.

Link: http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/1/25.full.pdf+html

 
Hwang BF and Jaakkola JJ (2003). Water chlorination and birth defects: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Environ Health, 58, (2), 83-91.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12899208


Whiting P, McDonagh M and Kleijnen J (2001). Association of down’s syndrome and water fluoride level: A systematic review of the evidence. BMC Public Health, 1, 6.

Link: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-1-6.pdf

 

Arbuckle TE and Sever LE (1998). Pesticide exposure and fetal death: A review of the epidemiological literature. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 28, (3), 229-270.

Link: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10408449891344218

van der Zanden LFM, van Rooij IALM, Franke B, Knoers NVAM, Roeleveld N (2012). Aetiology of hypospadias: A systematic review of genes and environment (Review).  Human Reproduction Update, 18, (3), 260-283.

Link: http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-84859950032&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&cite=2-s2.0-77953530149&src=s&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&imp=t&sid=wIEPCMrYkpB5H_woGE4GKCM%3a890&sot=cite&sdt=a&sl=0&relpos=4&relpos=4&searchTerm

 

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